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Shakespeare wrote that brevity is the soul of wit. When writing a manuscript, the complexity of your research may not always make it easy to keep your text brief, but it is still important to express ideas clearly and succinctly, with a minimum of unnecessary words.



There are a lot of journals out there to choose from and, unfortunately, not all of them are reputable. So how do you know which journals are good to submit to or have sent you a legitimate request for peer review? We’ve provided here a short guide to help you distinguish reputable journals from non-reputable journals. These items are some of the important factors to look for that can help you identify whether a journal’s practices are likely to be trustworthy.


Signs of a non-reputable or predatory publisher:


As is so often the case, the things we may have learned as “rules” for starting a sentence are not always universal. We may have been taught that a sentence should never start with a conjunction, or an acronym, or an Arabic numeral, but is that always the case?


Why do we use analysis of variance (ANOVA) when we are interested in the differences among means?

ANOVA is used to compare differences of means among more than 2 groups. It does this by looking at variation in the data and where that variation is found (hence its name). Specifically, ANOVA compares the amount of variation between groups with the amount of variation within groups. It can be used for both observational and experimental studies.


Most empirical studies fall into two groups: experimental studies and observational studies.


Experimental studies

In an experiment, a researcher manipulates a variable (e.g., imposes some treatment) to study its effect. An experiment usually involves:


Most of the time, we know when to use a capital letter: the names of people and places, the first word of a sentence, and when citing a direct quote “Xxxxx”. However, there are some common areas where many writers run into confusion about using capital letters. Knowing when to capitalize increases the presentation value of a manuscript, so we’ve provided below a list of recommendations for some of these common issues and the correct use of capitalization in these cases.


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