Which of the following is/are correct in scientific writing?

  1. The scores were not averaged since we found many outliers.
  2. The students said they did not study since they sat the final examination.
  3. The teachers last taught in 2000 and did not teach since then.
  4. The teachers said they taught since 30 years.

Which of the following is/are correct in scientific writing?

  1. The mean score among the students was 20. The score among the staff was 10 however.
  2. This study used a small sample. Our previous study however used a large sample.
  3. This interview study reveals varied responses from 10 students, however small group data cannot be generalized.
  4. The interview responses from the students however small the group reveal problems with the new policy.

As is so often the case, the things we may have learned as “rules” for starting a sentence are not always universal. We may have been taught that a sentence should never start with a conjunction, or an acronym, or an Arabic numeral, but is that always the case?


Most of the time, we know when to use a capital letter: the names of people and places, the first word of a sentence, and when citing a direct quote “Xxxxx”. However, there are some common areas where many writers run into confusion about using capital letters. Knowing when to capitalize increases the presentation value of a manuscript, so we’ve provided below a list of recommendations for some of these common issues and the correct use of capitalization in these cases.



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